From the longer Wikipedia page 
Pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, "drug-making"), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society. Examples would include the British Pharmacopoeia and the US Pharmacopoeia.
Although older writings exist which deal with herbal medicine, the major initial works in the field are considered to be Edwin Smith Papyrus in Egypt, Pliny’s pharmacopoeia and De Materia Medica (Περί ύλης ιατρικής), a five volume book originally written in Greek by Pedanius Dioscorides. The latter is considered to be precursor to all modern pharmacopoeias, and is one of the most influential herbal books in history. In fact it remained in use until about CE 1600.
The first dated work appeared in Nuremberg in 1542; a passing student named Valerius Cordus showed a collection of medical prescriptions, which he had selected from the writings of the most eminent medical authorities, to the physicians of the town, who urged him to print it for the benefit of the apothecaries, and obtained for his work the sanction of the senatus. A work known as the Antidotarium Florentinum, was published under the authority of the college of medicine of Florence in the 16th century.
Some parts of the Voynich Manuscript have aspects of being a pharmacopeia.